# Release Notes

## Version 0.0.9

**New Features**

Numpy

`__array_ufunc__`

was disabled in the Variable, Constraint and LinearExpression class in order to ensure persistence as the class when multiplying with numpy objects. As for pandas objects the issue https://github.com/pandas-dev/pandas/issues/45803 must be solved.The Variable class got a new accessor sol which points to the optimal values if the underlying model was optimized.

The Constraint class got a new accessor dual which points to the dual values if tune underlying model was optimized and dual values are existent.

When writing out the LP file, the handling of nan values is now checked in a more rigorous way. Before linopy was skipping and therefore ignoring constraints where the rhs was a nan value. As this behavior is not very save, such cases will raise an error now.

Models can now be solved on a remote machine using a ssh tunnel. The implementation automatically stores the locally initialized model to a netcdf file on the server, runs the optimization and retrieves the results. See the example Solve a model on a remote machine in the documentation for further information.

**Bug Fixes**

linopy is now continuously tested and working for Windows machines.

## Version 0.0.8

**New Features**

Writing out the LP was further sped up.

The LP file writing for problems with “-0.0” coefficients was fixed.

**Breaking changes**

the function

`as_str`

was replaced by`int_to_str`

and`float_to_str`

.

## Version 0.0.7

**New Features**

Add

`get_name_by_label`

function to`Variables`

and`Constraints`

class. It retrieves the name of the variable/constraint containing the passed integer label. This is helpful for debugging.

**Bug Fixes**

The lhs accessor for the

`Constraint`

class was fixed. This raised an error before as the _term dimension was not adjusted adequately.Variables and constraints which are fully masked are now skipped in the lp-file writing. This lead to a error before.

## Version 0.0.6

Hot fix: Assign

`linopy.__version__`

attributeHot fix: Fix sign assignment in conversion from

`LinearExpression`

to`AnonymousConstraint`

.

## Version 0.0.5

LinearExpression has a new function densify_terms which reduces the _term axis to a minimal length while containing all non-zero coefficient values.

When summing over one or multiple axes in a LinearExpression, terms with coefficient of zeros can now be dropped automatically.

The export of LP files was restructured and is flat arrays under the hook to ensure performant export of long constraints.

Dimensions of masks passed to add_variables and add_constraints now have to be a subset of the resulting labels dimensions.

A new high-level function merge was added to concatenate multiple linear expressions.

The

`Variable.where`

function now has -1 as default fill value.The return value of most Variable functions built on xarray functions now preserve the Variable type.

The variable labels in linear expression which are added to a model are ensured to be stored as integers.

A preliminary function to print out the subset of infeasible constraints was added (only available for Gurobi, based on https://www.gurobi.com/documentation/9.5/refman/py_model_computeiis.html)

Constraints with only missing variables labels are now sanitized are receive a label -1.

Binary variables now also have a non-nan lower and upper value due compatibility.

Models can now be created using the gurobipy API, this can lead to faster total solving times.

.solve has a new argument io_api. If set to ‘direct’ the io solving will be performed using the python API’s. Currently only available for gurobi.

The Variable class now has a lower and upper accessor, which allows to inspect and modify the lower and upper bounds of a assigned variable.

The Constraint class now has a lhs, vars, coeffs, rhs and sign accessor, which allows to inspect and modify the left-hand-side, the signs and right-hand-side of a assigned constraint.

Constraints can now be build combining linear expressions with right-hand-side via a >=, <= or a == operator. This creates an AnonymousConstraint which can be passed to Model.add_constraints.

Add support of the HiGHS open source solver https://www.maths.ed.ac.uk/hall/HiGHS/ (https://github.com/PyPSA/linopy/pull/8, https://github.com/PyPSA/linopy/pull/17).

**Breaking changes**

The low level IO function

`linopy.io.str_array_to_file`

was renamed to`linopy.io.array_to_file`

, the function`linopy.io.join_str_arrays`

was removed.The keep_coords flag in

`LinearExpression.sum`

and`Variable.sum`

was dropped.The run_ functions in linopy.solvers now have a new set of arguments and keyword argument, in order to make solving io more flexible.

ncons and nvars now count only non-missing constraints and variables.

## Version 0.0.4

**Package Design**

The definitions of variables, constraints and linearexpression were moved to dedicated modules: `linopy.variables`

, `linopy.constraints`

and `linopy.expressions`

.

**Internal/Data handling**

Most of the following changes are dedicated to data handling within the Model class. Users which rely on the internal structure have to expect some breaking changes.

The model class now stores variables and constraints in dedicated (newly added) classes,

`Variables`

and`Constraints`

. The`Variables`

class contains the`xarray`

datasets labels, lower and upper. The`Constraints`

class contains the datasets labels, coeffs, vars, sign and rhs. The two new class facilitate data access and helper functions.The “_term” dimension in the

`LinearExpression`

class is now stored without coordinates.As soon as a linear expression is added to a model the “_term” dimension is rename to “{constraintname}_term” in order align the model better with the contained arrays and to avoid unnecessary nans.

Missing values in the

`Model.variables.labels`

and`Model.constraints.labels`

arrays are now indicated by -1. This circumvents changing the type from int to float.`LinearExpression`

now allows empty data as input.The test_model_creation script was refactored.

**New Features**

The

`Variable`

class now has a accessor to get lower and upper bounds,`get_lower_bound()`

and`get_upper_bound()`

.A new

`Constraint`

class was added which enables a better visual representation of the constraints. The class also has getter function to get coefficients, variables, signs and rhs constants. The new return type of the`Model.add_constraints`

function is`Constraint`

.`add_variables`

and`add_constraints`

now accept a new argument`mask`

. The mask, which should be an boolean array, defines whether a variable/constraint is active (True) or should be ignored (False).A set of experimental eval functions was added. Now one can assign variable and constraints using string expressions. For further information see linopy.Model.vareval, linopy.Model.lineval and linopy.Model.coneval.

`Model`

has a new argument force_dim_names. When set to true assigned variables, constraints and data must always have custom dimension names, otherwise a ValueError is raised. These helps to avoid unintended broadcasting over dimension. Especially the use of pandas DataFrames and Series may become safer.A new binaries accessor

`Model.binaries`

was added.

## Version 0.0.3

Support assignment of variables and constraints without explicit names.

Add support for xarray version > 0.16

Add a documentation

## Version 0.0.2

Set up first runnable prototype.